The ‘Yellow’ Palm Acid Oil

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Our sample of Palm Acid Oil (PAO) delivery to Xiamen, China

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Partnerships in Palm Oil Builds Inclusive Economy

“The growth of oil palm plantations is drawing not only growth in economic activities directly related to palm oil, but also rural and urban economic sectors (inclusive growth)”

Several palm oil partnerships in a form of community-corporation in Indonesia which was developed since 1980 namely Special PIR, Local PIR, PIR Transmigration, KKPA PIR and PIR Plantation Revitalization, have opened access and made farmers as one of the important actors in the Indonesian oil palm plantations. Initially, oil palm plantations that belong to smallholders are developed under plasma scheme only. The success of the plasma scheme attracts local farmers to invest and join in planting oil palm which is then known as independent smallholders.

The growth of independent smallholders’ plantations is faster than the plasma smallholders’. They dominate the national oil palm plantations. This partnership has brought revolution of oil palm in Indonesia that is indicated by the increase in the share of people’s palm oil, and Indonesia became the “king” of CPO around the world.

Moreover in terms of regional development, the partnership also succeeded in managing a synergy between private investment, state-owned enterprises, the people and the government into a big-push strategy investment in the central area of ​​oil palm plantations which gave birth to new economic developing centers. The growth of nucleus and plasma oil palm plantations as well as independent farmers has encouraged the development of small-medium-union businesses (UKMK) engaged in urban industrial goods or services suppliers, as well as agricultural / fishery / livestock products to meet the communities’ need of food. In the next stage, in the growth of oil palm plantations, especially after palm oil (CPO) has been produced; people start to develop residential centers, offices, and markets surrounding the area in such a way that overall became a new agricultural cities. Big-push strategy creates new oil-based economic developing centers that are inclusive in rural areas.

According to the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (2014), until 2013 there at least 50 underdeveloped or isolated rural areas which have developed into new growth areas which based on CPO production centers. Among these areas are Sungai Bahar (Jambi), Pematang Panggang and Peninjauan (South Sumatera), Arga Makmur (Bengkulu), Sungai Pasar and Lipat Kain (Riau), Paranggean (Central Kalimantan) and many others. Most of these CPO production centers have developed into new sub-districts and districts in rural areas.

The followings are the new economic growth centers as the result of the development of oil palm plantations: : (1) North Sumatra Province (Stabat, Belarang, Sei Rampah, Limapuluh, Perdagangan, Rantau Prapat, Aek Kanopan, Aek Nabara, Kota Pinang, Sosa, Sibuhuan, Panyabungan, etc.), (2) Riau Province (Pasir Pengaraian, Bangkinang, Siak Sri Indrapura, Rengat, Tembilahan, Bengkalis, Bagan Siapi-api, Teluk Kuantan, Dumai, Pekanbaru, etc.), (3) South Sumatra Province (cities such as Sungai Lilin, Tugumulyo, Pematang Panggang, Bayung Lencir, Musi Rawas, Peninjauan and several cities towards the area of South Sumatra from Kota Muara Enim to Kota Lahat), (4) Jambi Province (Sarolangun, Sungai Bahar, Sengeti, Kuala Tungkal, etc.), (5) Central Kalimantan Province (Sampit, Kuala Pembuang, Pangkalan Bun, Kasongan, etc.), (6) East Kalimantan Province (Sangatta, Tenggarong, Tana Pase, Tanjung Redeb, Nunukan, Sendawar, etc.), (7) South Kalimantan Province (Batulicin, Kotabaru, Pelaihari, etc.), (8) Sulawesi Province (Mamuju, Donggala, Bungku, Luwu, Pasangkayu, etc.).

The development of new growth centers which is based on inclusive palm oil attracts and integrates rural and urban economies. New growth centers in rural areas become market for rural and urban products.

A study by PASPI (2016) stated that the sales of products from urban areas to oil palm plantation communities (oil palm farmers, oil palm plantation employees) reach 336 trillion Rupiah per year. While sales between rural agricultural products produced by crop farmers, ranchers, or fishermen that are sold to the oil palm plantation community reach 92 trillion Rupiah per year. This consists of crop farmer sales of 54.6 trillion Rupiah per year, farmer sales of 24.1 trillion Rupiah per year, and fishermen sales of 13.7 trillion Rupiah per year.

In short, the growth of oil palm plantations not only attracts growth in economic activities directly related to oil palm but also attracts rural and urban economic sectors simultaneously. Such economic characteristic is called inclusive economic growth.


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Palm Oil : Vegetable Oil Saves Global Deforestation

“If we use soybean to meet the world’s need of vegetable oil in 2050, it will cost 300 million hectares of deforestation. If we use palm oil instead, the amount of deforestation that can happen will be around 20 million hectares.”

The need for vegetable oil continues to increase following population and economic growth. A study by Corley, R.H.V (2009), How Much Palm Oil Do We Need which is quoted in the journal of Environmental Science and Policy (12) stated that the demand for edible oil will probably reach around 240 million tons in 2050. Based on consumption data in 2015, it is estimated that additional 150 million tons of vegetable oil is needed to cover the demand. The question is what is now the most suitable vegetable oil plantation that can be expanded in order to meet the world’s demand?

Out of 17 different types of global vegetable oil, only the production of soybean oil and palm oil are the most likely to increase. It is going to be difficult to expect additional production from the other sources of vegetable oil. Soybean oil productivity is 0.5 tons per hectare area. If the world’s additional consumption of 150 million tons of vegetable oil is met from the expansion of soybean plantation areas, then the additional area needed for more soybean plantations is going to be around 300 million hectares. Unfortunately there is not enough land. To cover these additional areas, the expansion of soybean plantations is only possible through forest conversion in the South American region such as Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

In comparison, palm oil productivity is 5 tons per hectare area. If the additional consumption of 150 million tons of vegetable oil is met from using palm oil, then the additional global palm oil plantation areas needed is going to be around 30 million hectares. Such additional oil palm plantations are still possible in Indonesia and some parts of Central Africa.

The next question is about which one will the world community choose to expend between the two? Ideally if possible, it is neither expansion of soybean plantations nor oil palm plantations because either way it can cause global deforestation. The problem is that it is unavoidable to meet the needs of global vegetable oil in 2050; the world vegetable oil production must be increased. The least we can do is to save and minimize global deforestation.

If the world community chooses to expand soybean gardens, then global deforestation over 300 million hectares areas is expected to occur in 2050, especially in the South American region. While if palm plantations is chosen, global deforestation is expected to be only around 30 million hectares.

Can deforestation caused by global oil palm expansion be saved? Of course it can if the increase in productivity is ascertained. If productivity of oil palm plantations increases from around 5 tons per hectare to 8 tons per hectare, then the cost for oil palm expansion is going to be enough with around 20 million hectares of deforestation. Furthermore, International support is also needed to finance technology research and development of new superior varieties of oil palm. In other words, people should be willing to pay higher for the price of palm oil they consume in order to minimize global deforestation. Hopefully with only an additional 20 million hectares of world oil palm plantations, it is sufficient to fulfill the needs of the world community in 2050.


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Sawit Dalam Politik Pangan Dan Energi Global

Henry Kissinger, Menteri Luar Negeri USA 1973-1977 pemerintahan Ricard Nixon, pernah mengatakan “Siapa yang menguasai pangan, akan kuasai rakyat dan siapa menguasai energi, kuasai bangsa-bangsa”. Pandangan Henry Kissinger tersebut, disadari atau tidak telah mewarnai politik pangan dan energi global sampai hari ini. Politik pangan dan energi yang sampai saat ini diadopsi banyak negara khususnya negara adidaya, diilhami pandangan Henry Kissinger tersebut. Hampir setiap negara dunia modern ini mengendalikan dan mengelola ketahan pangan dan energi secara at all cost. Salah satu kekuatan adidaya Amerika Serikat selama ini adalah kemampuannya mengendalikan pangan dan energi dunia.

Sawit mungkin sudah harus kita lihat dan tempatkan dalam konteks politik pangan dan energi global. Mengapa? Pertama, sawit menghasilkan bahan pangan (oleofoods) dan energi (biofuel) bahkan juga biomaterial, yang dihasilkan secara joint product dari kebun sawit. Dan produktivitas minyak dan biomas kebun sawit adalah tertinggi diantara tanaman biofuel yang ada dibumi ini. Tanaman kelapa sawit yang merupakan tanaman/pohon tahunan produksinya relatif stabil dari bulan ke bulan, tahun-ketahun (ini juga tak dimiliki tanaman biofuel lain) sehingga sesuai untuk memenuhi tuntutan stabilitas penyediaan bahan pangan dan energi.

Kedua, Komsumsi minyak sawit sebagai bahan pangan (oleofood) telah melibatkan hampir seluruh masyarakat dunia. Konsumsi minyak sawit ini tidak hanya dalam bentuk minyak goreng dan margarin, tetapi yang jauh lebih besar dan meluas adalah penggunaan minyak sawit dalam industri makanan global. Berbagai keunggulan minyak sawit sebagai bahan pangan membuat minyak sawit sangat luas penggunaaanya pada industri pangan global. Diperkirakan sekitar 70 persen industri pangan global telah menggunakan minyak sawit.

Ketiga, minyak sawit dan biomas sawit sebagai bahan energi makin populer sebagai subsitusi minyak fosil yang tidak ramah lingkungan, beracun, non renewable energy dan makin langka. Minyak sawit sebagai bahan baku biofuel lebih ramah lingkungan, dapat diperbarui (renewable energy) dan harganya lebih kompetitif dibanding minyak nabati lain. Dari minyak dan biomas sawit (biohidrokarbon) dapat dihasilkan biodiesel dan green diesel (pengganti solar dan diesel fosil), green gasoline (pengganti bensin fosil), green avtur (pengganti avtur fosil), bioetanol, biobutanol, biopropanol, biogas dan lain-lain. Industri biodiesel dunia saja produksinya meningkat cepat dari hanya sekitar 16 juta ton (2009) menjadi 35 juta ton (2016). Tahun 2019 ini produksi biodiesel dunia diperkirakan akan menembus 40 juta ton.

Keempat, kedepan misalnya sampai tahun 2050, kebutuhan minyak nabati global untuk bahan pangan (oleofood) saja akan naik setidaknya dua kali lipat. Kenaikan tersebut terutama dari Cina, India dan Indonesia (60 persen penduduk dunia) yang konsumsinya diperkirakan naik dua kali lipat baik akibat peningkatan jumlah penduduk, perubahan komposisi penduduk maupun pertumbuhan ekonomi.

Selain kebutuhan untuk bahan pangan, kebutuhan minyak nabati untuk biofuel juga akan meningkat baik untuk menghemat cadangan minyak fosil ,maupun untuk menggantikan minyak fosil sebagai mitigasi pengurangan emisi global.

Dengan keempat alasan diatas, sawit jelas bukan lagi sekedar komoditas ekonomi saja, melainkan secara evolusioner sedang berubah menjadi produk yang bernilai ekonomi sekaligus bernilai politik. Sawit sedang memasuki era baru yakni era dimana sawit sudah bagian dari politik pangan dan energi global. Jika saat ini EU,dan USA “rajin” menggoyang sawit Indonesia, selain alasan persaingan bisnis juga bagian politik pangan dan energi global. Meskipun akhirnya batal, upaya salah satu negara adidaya untuk berupaya mengontrol sawit melalui IPOP (Indonesia Palm Oil Pledge) sulit diabaikan bahwa keterlibatan negara adidaya tersebut tidak terkait dengan upaya ikut mengontrol sawit.

Juga dibalik segala kebijakan EU terhadap sawit selama ini, sulit diyakini hanya sekadar alasan lingkungan tanpa terkait dengan upaya EU untuk ikut mengontrol sawit sebagai bahan pangan dan energi global kedepan. Faktanya menunjukkan bahwa impor minyak sawit EU masih tetap bertumbuh, meskipun EU rajin menggulirkan isu-isu lingkungan dari sawit.

Pandangan Henry Kissinger 50 tahun lalu tersebut diatas masih tetap relevan baik saat ini maupun kedepan. Hal yang baru adalah sawit sedang naik pentas politik pangan dan energi global dan diperkirakan akan makin menguat kedepan.


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Resolusi digital di 2019, e-Commerce kelapa Sawit !

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Resolusi digital 2019 Sawit Nasional, Akan hadir "e-Palmoil" sebagai platform digital online, berbasis web apps dan mobile apps, guna mengkoneksikan setiap stake holder yang terkait dalam proses transaksi perdagangan produk-produk kelapa Sawit. Hal demikian atas kerjasama dengan PT. Bumi Energi Biomasa berikut jaringan pelaku bisnis kelapa sawit khususnya di provinsi Riau. Bisnis kelapa Sawit Nasional akan segera dalam genggaman anda ! . . English version: Digital resolution in 2019 for Indonesian Palmoil Will be coming soon "e-Palmoil", the digital online platform which base on web apps and mobile apps, for the sake of connecting stake-holders efficiently while trade Palmoil products. Thanks to PT Bumi Energi Biomasa for the collaboration to make it happen, and all the companies / people within this business, especially in the region of province Riau. Indonesian palmoil business will be soon effectively in your hand !

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